The simple but efficient ancient Chinese numbering system, which dates back to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, used small bamboo rods arranged to represent the numbers 1 to 9, which were then places in columns representing units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. It was therefore a decimal place value system, very similar to the one we use today – indeed it was the first such number system, adopted by the Chinese over a thousand years before it was adopted in the West – and it made even quite complex calculations very quick and easy. Written numbers, however, employed the slightly less efficient system of using a different symbol for tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. This was largely because there was no concept or symbol of zero, and it had the effect of limiting the usefulness of the written number in Chinese. Lo Shu magic square, with its traditional graphical representation There was a pervasive fascination with numbers and mathematical patterns in ancient China, and different numbers were believed to have cosmic significance. In particular, magic squares – squares of numbers where each row, column and diagonal added up to the same total – were regarded as having great spiritual and religious significance. It was particularly important as a guide to how to solve equations – the deduction of an unknown number from other known information – using a sophisticated matrix-based method which did not appear in the West until Carl Friedrich Gauss re-discovered it at the beginning of the 19th Century and which is now known as Gaussian elimination. They also started to pursue more abstract mathematical problems although usually couched in rather artificial practical terms , including what has become known as the Chinese Remainder Theorem. This uses the remainders after dividing an unknown number by a succession of smaller numbers, such as 3, 5 and 7, in order to calculate the smallest value of the unknown number.
Well, that explains that. I had been wondering. David Andrade While it might be considered gibberish, it catches the essence of a psychedelic trip.
For mathematicians in academia, can you share your dating/relationship experience when you dated someone outside of academia? () submitted 3 years ago by superweezy.
In front of you are three doors. Behind each door is a prospective partner. Your mission is to couple up with your best possible match. Imagine you chose a door at random. If you couple up with the person behind it, the chance you get your best match is 1 in 3. You can assume that of the three people who are waiting behind the doors, there is a best match, a not so good match, and a least good match for you. But there are rules:
About a Boston mass whiz who hacked his way to true love and figured out how to get the girl of his dreams. It’s a little more of “Beautiful mind. Chris Mckinley is so fed up with online dating he rye sorted to math to find his true love. I probably went on maybe a date or two a month for four or five months. Frustrated but still hopeful Mckinley says he built his own algorithm to attract the best matches from the dating site he was on, okaycupid.
Today’s puzzle is about dating strategy. You’re single and looking for love. In front of you are three doors. Behind each door is a prospective partner.
Voice-over by David Krumholtz We all use math every day. To predict weather…to tell time…to handle money. Math is more than formulas and equations. Season 1 [ edit ] Main article: List of Numbers episodes season 1 The first season run of the show aired between January 23, , and May 13, , at Don and Charlie’s father, Alan Eppes, provides emotional support for the pair, while Professor Larry Fleinhardt and doctoral student Amita Ramanujan provide mathematical support and insights to Charlie.
Season One was a half-season, producing only 13 episodes. Season 2 —06 [ edit ] Main article: List of Numbers episodes season 2 The second season run of the show aired between September 23, , and May 19, , again at Megan Reeves and Colby Granger.
The agency is particularly interesting because it maintains a stable of mathematicians to solve any problems that come up in the course of sleuthing. In fact, the whole point of the NSA originally was mathematical cryptography following the re-organization of the cryptanalysis divisions of the army and navy after World War Two. While the exact number of mathematicians the NSA employs is classified, the agency acknowledges that they’re the nation’s leading employer of mathematicians.
From an NSA job listing explaining the demands of the position:
Mathematicians and applied mathematicians are considered to be two of the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers. [ citation needed ] The discipline of applied mathematics concerns itself with mathematical methods that are typically used in science, engineering, business, and industry; thus, “applied mathematics” is a.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. The Mathematics of Dating This class normally covers a few mathematical problems that have implications to one’s dating life. The problems vary based on how much time is left and the previous knowledge of students. Some problems that have been taught in the past follow. Secure Dating Protocol At a high school party, some individuals are romantically interested in others.
But because this is high school, it is absolutely central that you find out if your romantic interest is interested in you without letting on whether you yourself are interested 1 1 Why is this so important? The world may never know; high schoolers are weird.. Normal people rely on signals, hints, and elaborate ruses. Being mathematicians and computer scientists, we’ve got a better idea: Here are some references that have the same material; no reason to copy good content into here.
Notes from MIT’s 6. Imagine that each man and woman can rank all members of the opposite sex by how attractive a partner they are.
Now, I think that we can all agree that mathematicians are famously excellent at finding love. Laughter But it’s not just because of our dashing personalities, superior conversational skills and excellent pencil cases. It’s also because we’ve actually done an awful lot of work into the maths of how to find the perfect partner.
Now, in my favorite paper on the subject, which is entitled, “Why I Don’t Have a Girlfriend” — Laughter Peter Backus tries to rate his chances of finding love. Now, Peter’s not a very greedy man.
Characteristics of Mathematicians. Usually very precocious Very confident Do not suffer fools Fend for yourself Obsessed with quality and talent Gate keepers of quality Very competitive Brilliant-analytic thought Stupid-with people skills or operator theory Social conservative.
He is also given credit for early developments that led to modern calculus, and for early progress in probability theory. He was fluent in Latin, Greek, Italian and Spanish, and was praised for his written verse in several languages, and eagerly sought for advice on the emendation of Greek texts. Fermat’s mathematical work was communicated mainly in letters to friends, often with little or no proof of his theorems.
Although he himself claimed to have proved all his arithmetic theorems, few records of his proofs have survived, and many mathematicians have doubted some of his claims, especially given the difficulty of some of the problems and the limited mathematical tools available to Fermat. His so-called Little Theorem is often used in the testing of large prime numbers, and is the basis of the codes which protect our credit cards in Internet transactions today.
In simple sic terms, it says that if we have two numbers a and p, where p is a prime number and not a factor of a, then a multiplied by itself p-1 times and then divided by p, will always leave a remainder of 1. In mathematical terms, this is written: The first five such numbers are: Interestingly, these are all prime numbers and are known as Fermat primes , but all the higher Fermat numbers which have been painstakingly identified over the years are NOT prime numbers, which just goes to to show the value of inductive proof in mathematics.
Over the centuries, several mathematical and scientific academies offered substantial prizes for a proof of the theorem, and to some extent it single-handedly stimulated the development of algebraic number theory in the 19th and 20th Centuries. It was finally proved for ALL numbers only in a proof usually attributed to British mathematician Andrew Wiles, although in reality it was a joint effort of several steps involving many mathematicians over several years.
In addition to his work in number theory, Fermat anticipated the development of calculus to some extent, and his work in this field was invaluable later to Newton and Leibniz. While investigating a technique for finding the centres of gravity of various plane and solid figures, he developed a method for determining maxima, minima and tangents to various curves that was essentially equivalent to differentiation.
Also, using an ingenious trick, he was able to reduce the integral of general power functions to the sums of geometric series.
Posted on May 12, by The Physicist The original question was: Suppose there is a set of variables whose individual values are probably different, and may be anything larger than zero. Can their sum be predicted? If so, is the margin for error less than infinity? This question is asked with the intention of understanding basically the decay constant of radiometric dating although I know the above is not an entirely accurate representation.
Feb 12, · Speed Dating in Math Class I was sitting in my observation classroom of Trevor Kuzee 7th grade math class. He told his students if they did everything today, they could do a game of speeding dating at the end of the day to review for the up coming quiz.
Someone who is a soulmate, whose personality compliments yours and whom you’re attracted to. Don’t let pop-science run your dating life it isn’t really science anyway — instead, learn to like yourself and enjoy the process. People can be awesome, even if you don’t end up sleeping with them. January 27, at For one date night, I would have my “goods” in a nice package with the slightly tighter jeans when we first met, very visible.
On the other date night, I would have them tucked away with the looser jeans and not really visible.
An important component of the Systemic Initiatives was the aggressive distribution of NCTM aligned curricula for classroom use. The NCTM Standards were vague as to mathematical content, but specific in its support of constructivist pedagogy, the criterion that mattered most to the NSF. It should be noted that the Systemic Initiatives sometimes promoted curricula not on the list above, such as College Preparatory Mathematics, a high school program, and MathLand, a K-6 curriculum.
Most notable in this regard was the NSF’s funding of a “reform calculus” book, often referred to as “Harvard Calculus,” that relied heavily on calculators and discovery work by the students, and minimized the level of high school algebra required for the program.
of, relating to, or of the nature of mathematics: mathematical truth. employed in the operations of mathematics: mathematical instruments. having the exactness, precision, or certainty of mathematics.
Who are the young mathematicians whose careers exhibit extraordinary promise? Mathematicians of the 21st Century I had anticipated delaying this section until and young folks had begun to publish. This promises to be a stelar career. Mathematicians of the s: Seven mathematicians of the s, Adebisi Agboola, Jonathan Farley, Wilfrid Gangbo, Abba Gumel, Trachette Jackson, Katherine Okikiolu, and Arlie Petters show extraordinary promise, “should be” but are not necessarily located at the very best institutions, and may be the Fields medal candidates of the future.
He is Full Professor of Mathematics and of Physics their first tenured Black professor in the sciences – congratulations Duke. He is chiefly interested in the mathematical theory of gravitational lensing and related areas differential geometry, singularity theory, general relativity, Astrophysics. Though Petters received his Ph. Petters’s book on Gravitational Lensing is considered a tour de force in mathematical physics.
The book contains some fifteen definitions and ninety-five statements, of which there are about two dozen statements that serve as algebraic rules or formulas. There are three primary types of conic sections: The conic sections are reputed to have been discovered by Menaechmus  c. Using this information it was now possible to find a solution to the problem of the duplication of the cube by solving for the points at which two parabolas intersect, a solution equivalent to solving a cubic equation.
1. Introduction Everyone is familiar with the power of mathematics to solve problems in physics. Though Galileo is recognized more as a physicist than a mathematician, he was a professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa () and the University of Padua ().
The stable form of carbon is carbon 12 and the radioactive isotope carbon 14 decays over time into nitrogen 14 and other particles. Carbon is naturally in all living organisms and is replenished in the tissues by eating other organisms or by breathing air that contains carbon. At any particular time all living organisms have approximately the same ratio of carbon 12 to carbon 14 in their tissues.
When an organism dies it ceases to replenish carbon in its tissues and the decay of carbon 14 to nitrogen 14 changes the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon Experts can compare the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon 14 in dead material to the ratio when the organism was alive to estimate the date of its death. Radiocarbon dating can be used on samples of bone, cloth, wood and plant fibers.
The half-life of a radioactive isotope describes the amount of time that it takes half of the isotope in a sample to decay. In the case of radiocarbon dating, the half-life of carbon 14 is 5, years. This half life is a relatively small number, which means that carbon 14 dating is not particularly helpful for very recent deaths and deaths more than 50, years ago.
After 5, years, the amount of carbon 14 left in the body is half of the original amount. If the amount of carbon 14 is halved every 5, years, it will not take very long to reach an amount that is too small to analyze. When finding the age of an organic organism we need to consider the half-life of carbon 14 as well as the rate of decay, which is —0.
For a history of mathematics in general, see History of mathematics One of the earliest known mathematicians was Thales of Miletus c. The number of known mathematicians grew when Pythagoras of Samos c. The first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria AD – She succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote many works on applied mathematics. Because of a political dispute, the Christian community in Alexandria punished her, presuming she was involved, by stripping her naked and scraping off her skin with clamshells some say roofing tiles.
It was extensive patronage and strong intellectual policies implemented by specific rulers that allowed scientific knowledge to develop in many areas.
Pythagoras’s theorem in Babylonian mathematics. In this article we examine four Babylonian tablets which all have some connection with Pythagoras’s theorem. Certainly the Babylonians were familiar with Pythagoras’s theorem. A translation of a Babylonian tablet which is .
Search Women and Mathematics WAM is most grateful for renewed funding from the National Science Foundation as well as a generous grant from Lisa Simonyi, which will enable WAM to enact many new initiatives to continue its mission to recruit and retain more women in mathematics. WAM aims to counter the initial imbalance in the numbers of men and women entering mathematics training as well as the higher attrition rate of female mathematicians compared to their male counterparts at every critical transition stage in mathematical careers.
WAM encourages female mathematicians to form collaborative research relationships and to become active in a vertical mentoring network spanning a continuum from undergraduates to emerita professors, which provides support and reduces the sense of isolation experienced by many women in mathematics. While there are a number of women’s programs targeted solely at undergraduates, or graduate students, or postdocs, very few programs provide the depth and breadth that come from simultaneously including features tailored for undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers from a broad spectrum of US institutions, all in one united community of scholars, as WAM does.